Fantanita Reserve covers a scarp, crossed by narrow and shallow valleys and hosts over 500 species of plants characteristic of southern Dobrogea area, predominting the Pontic elements, followed by the Balkan Continental, Mediterranean and Eurasian. The fauna includes many species characteristic of the steppe of Dobrudja.
The remarkable value of the site is given by the presence of protected species of bird population worldwide, of the Mediterranean, Balkan and Black Sea species of mammals and reptiles and species of invertebrates, especially Lepidoptera family which has a maximal value.
Erithacus Rubecula (Red goiter). For both male and female the feathers are greysh with a rusty stain on the chest. It nests in hallows or fallen tree trunks, the nest has 5-6 blue eggs, rusty stained. The female incubates them alone, for 13-14 days. Winter is often singing in places where it is installed.
Sturnus Vulgaris (Starling). The body is black, with intense green and purple reflections on the head and chest. It nests in hollows and holes in walles, reed roofs and concrete pillars. Eggs,5-7 in number, are light blue.
The incubation, 13-14 days, is made by both partners. It can raise 2 generations of cubs/ season. In winter the northern populations retreat to south-west area. There are large flocks even in winter, especially in the south-east, as birds coming from the north.
They imitate songs of other birds.
Cuculus Canorus (Cuckoo). They belong to Cuculidae family and look like sparrow. Slender birds, of medium size. They feed on insects, insect larvae and fruits.
Most of them lay their eggs in nests of other birds, but most cuckoos raise their babies alone.
Accipiter Gentilis (Blackthorn hawk). Length 50-60 cm, it is a medium size predator. It has brownish grey feathers on the back, the chest is a more lighter brown with black stripes. Attacks small birds and mammals. The nest usually has 3-5 eggs. Brooding is done more by the female, for 35-38 days. The male supplies her in this time with food. The attack is premeditated, using very different tactics, depending on the prey or location.
Accipiter Nisus (Hawk). It is a very rare species of brooding bird. The male has dark gray feathers on the back, the female brown. On the chest the male has red stripes and the female brown. The nest has 3-5 white eggs speckled with brown. The brooding is done more by the female for 32-35 days.
It resembles to the short legged hawk, but the main difference is in the iris, wich is yellow and not orange.
Pica Pica (The Magpie). Magpie has black plumage with white shoulders and chest, the tail is black with green reflections. Strictly sendentary, it makes a nest from thornes, with entrance from lateral sides. Eggs, 5-7 in number are layed in April. The eggs - green with brown staines are rotten by the female in 17-18 days.
Turdus Merula (merle, blackbird) has a length of 27 cm. The male is black, the female is dark brown. Nest is built at low height of the ground, in bushes, shrubbery. The full spawning is laid down since April, especially for populations in parks towns. The 4-5 blue-green eggs, sprinkled with brown, are rotten by the female for 14-15 days. There are 2-3 series of chicken that arise in summer time.
Upupa Epops (hoopoe). The popular name is Armenian cuckoo. Its length is 28 cm. As a distinctive sign the hoopoe has a comb made of orange and black feathers on top. The wings are white with black stripes and the rest of the body is yellow-orange. Hoopoe makes its nest in the hollows that are not lining up. Female lays up about 8 eggs and the incubation period is 16 days.The babies comes out by turns and they are fed by both parents.
Perdix Perdix (Partridge). The feathering is bright brown with the neck and goiter gray. The male has a more pronounced brown spot on the neck. It nests on soil, in the grass. The eggs, 10-20, green-yellow, are layed in May and are rottened only by the females. Although sedentary, without food partridge wanders from one place to another.
Ablepharus Kitaibelii (Small lizard). The total length of the lizard is 8-12 cm, but just the tail has 5-7 cm. The legs are short and skinny, the hole of the ear is very obvious. Scales are smooth and wide. The lizard is very agile, hard to see and catch. It walks and runs by lateral movement of the trunk and tail. It is mostly active in the first hours of the morning and before sunset. The female lais up to 15 eggs. In captivity it is tamed easily, feeds on earthwormes, flies, spiders.
Apodemus Sylvaticus (Forest mouse). Rear paw 20- 25 mm, tail 120 – 170 scaly rings, weight 18 – 25 g. The belly and legs are white, the back is red, and it has a yellow stain on the chest. It is very good at climbing trees, it feeds in general with seeds, wild fruits and more rarelly with grains. Digs deep galleries 30-50 (70) cm, especially under the roots of trees and bushes. The female has 4 – 6 cubs, 3 – 4 times a year.
Lepus Europaeus (The hare). The head and the body 600 – 700 mm, tail 75 – 100 mm, rear paw 135 – 150 mm, ear 120 –140 mm, skull 85 – 95 mm, weight 3 – 5 kg.
The back is yellowish-brown, with black spotes. The abdomen is white and the nack is yellowish brown.The tail is dark brown in the front and underneth white.
Erinaceus Europaeus (Hedgehog). Length of body 200 – 300 mm, tail 20 – 45mm, rear paw 40 – 45 mm, skull 55 – 65 mm. The body is stocky and short. Wide ears and little black eyes. The face is yellowish-white or yellowish-red. Black whiskers. Spines at the middle and top dark brown, the rest yellowish. The female is more bigger than the male, with sharper whiskers, stronger body and a brighter color.The cubs are born with white spines. It hibernates from automn to March. The adult female has 3 – 8 little cubs. Brings real agricultural services by destroying a large quantity of insects, worms and mole cricket.
Spermophilus citellus (Gopher). The head and the body 180 – 230 mm, tail 50 – 70 mm, ear 10 mm, rear paw 35 – 40 mm, weight 240- 340 g. The head is round with small ears. The lips, chin and neck are white. The forehead is a mixture of yellow and reddish brown. Whiskers and nails are black. It diggs up long galleries 30-40 (sometimes 150 m) where it gathers supplies for winter. The food is in summer seeds, roots, grains, rarely consuming animal feed. The mating period is in spring (march - april). The female gives birth once or twice a year to 3-8 cubs.
Vormela Peregusna (stained ferret). Head and trunk 32-38 cm tail (final brushless) 15-20 cm, rear foot (without claws) 4-5 cm. Bushy tail, ears rather large and rounded at the top, the edges white. Head brown, dark. A transverse white band above the eyes. Sides white mouth. Abdomen blackish. Tail gray. The typical steppe, avoiding places look, rarely met and river valleys, in addition to human settlements, through the gardens, barns, straw sire. Digs a hole and often uses gopher galleries. It feeds on rodents, birds, lizards, gopher summer more. Pairing in March. 4-8 female puppies born after 8 weeks.
Mustela Eversmanni (Steppe Polecat). Head and trunk 35-38 cm, tail 12-16 cm, weight 0.7 to 1.3 kg. Similar species Mustela putorius, but with lighter hair. Back brown-yellowish abdomen slightly darker. Eye stain darker. Spread in eastern Europe and western Asia, prefer steppe. Known to us only in Dobrudja.
Misocricetus Newton. It is found only in Dobrudja.
Talpa Europaea (mole). Length of the body 125 – 150 mm, tail 25-28 mm, rear paw 15-19 mm, skull 30-38 mm. The body is short, fat and cylindrical. The eyes are abanos black and they get confused with the fur color, they are as small as a grain of opioum. Short tail, the fur is generally dark brown with bluesh or white reflections. Some have the fur black with white spots and very rare, some are white completelly. It lives only undergorund in complex galleries recognized by the mounds of earth on top.
Spalax Leucodon. The body is 18-27 cm long, weight 140 – 220 g. It is covered in thick and silky fur with a gray-reddish color.
Legs, very small compared to the body, have strong nails used for digging. It is perfectly adapted to life underground, living almost exclusevely in its galleries. Each one diggs its own network of galleries. The cubs nest has a 30 cm diameter and is lined with herbs. To make the galleries it uses the claws and teeth. It feeds exclusively on grass and roots.
The mating period occurs in spring, when they rise to the soil, especially males. They make one genaration of 2 – 4 cubs a year. In the rest of the time it lives alone. It is on the food list of fox, polecat and night predators.
Coluber Jugularis (Evil Serpent). Harmless, attitudes of cobra, useful in biological control of field rodents.
Testudo Graeca (Dobrudja Turtle). Length of 15-27 cm. Males are distinguished from females by long and strong tails, by insertion of the posterior notch size, the scales supracodal very bulging. Shell yellow-dark brown or olive uniform, each plate is bordered by black spots, irregular. They prefer dry land, with high bushes, forest steppe, the loving warmth. It feeds on plant roots, earthworms. Females lay by May-June, 4-12 spherical eggs, white, which hatch in 70-80 days. Perform well in captivity. Live 90-125 years. It is protected by law and declared a natural monument.
Zebrina Detrita is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Enidae.
Carpocoris Mediterraneus is a species of shield bug in the Pentatomidae family. It is widespread throughout the Mediterranean region. It is a polyphagous vegetarian.
Ephesia Fulminea (Moth). Family Noctuidae. This family is the largest in the Lepidoptera and has approximately 20,000 species. Most moths are gray to brown in color and have line or spots on their wings. Some species are brightly colored. They are small to large in size, and most species are medium-sized with wings of 2-4.5 cm. When at rest, adults of most species hold their wings above their bodies like a roof. Noctuids are typically nocturnal , though some species are diurnal . Most larvae feed on plant foliage , dead leaves, lichens, and fungi, many are serious forest pests.
Acrotylus Insubricus. It is one of the most greedy insects, devouring daily amount of food equal to its weight. Adults weigh 2-3 grams and length does not exceed 50 mm.
|Carpocoris Mediterraneus||Ephesia Fulminea